The Peace Treaty of Edirne (Adrianople) between Russia and Turkey

September 2, 1829

By God’s mercy, we, Nicholas the First, the emperor and autocrat of all Russia, Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, the king of Kazan, the king of Astrakhan, the king of Poland, the king of Siberia, the king of the Chersonese-Tavria, the sovereign of Pskov and the Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuanian, Volynsk, Podolsk and Finnish, prince of Estland, Livonian,Prince of Eastland, Liflandia, Kurland and Semigalsk, Samogit, Belastok, Karel, Tver, Yugorsk, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgarian and others; Sovereign and Grand Duke of Nova Gorod Nizov lands, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Belozersk, Udora, Obdor, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavian and all northern countries, sovereign and monarchs Iberian, Kartalian, Georgian, Kabardian, lands and regions of Armen Cherkassk and mountain princes and other hereditary sovereign and owner; heir to Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarns, Ditmarsen and Oldenburg, and so on.

We declare through this to whom it is proper to know that on the 2nd of September, 1829, between our imperial majesty and His Majesty the emperor of the Ottoman, the great sultans, the great and most respectable, the king of the most lecherous Mecca and Medina and the protector of holy Jerusalem, the king and emperor of the largest provinces inhabited in European and Asian countries and on the White and Black Sea, the brightest, most powerful and great emperor, the Sultan, the son of the Sultan and the king and son of kings, the Sultan Mahmud Khan, the son of the Sultan Abdul-Hamid Khan, by virtue of the authority given on both sides, namely: ours, the most brilliant and most excellent Count Ivan IvanovichDibich-Zabalkansky, our Field Marshal and General adjutant, commander of our 2nd Army, chief of the infantry name of his regiment, member of the State Council and cavalier of all our orders, as well as the imperial-Austrian: Maria Theresa of the lesser cross, Leopold the Great Cross and the Royal Prussian Black Eagle, Red Eagle 1 class and military dignity; having a golden sword, decorated with diamonds, with the inscription “For courage”, medals: for the campaign of 1812, for the capture of Paris in 1814 and for the Persian War of 1826, 1827 and 1828 .; but from the side of His Majesty to the emperor of Ottoman by superlatives and honorable masters: Mehmed-Sadik-Efendi, the real great defector of the Sublime Porte of Ottoman and Abdul-Kadir-Bey, kazi-asker Anatolian, an agreement of eternal peace between both empires was concluded and concluded, consisting of sixteen words, which range from sixteen words from words say tacos:

In the name of God Almighty

His Imperial Majestythe most blessed, sovereign, great sovereign emperor and autocrat all-Russian and His Majesty the most blessed and sovereign great emperor of the Ottoman, motivated by an equal desire to put an end to the scourge of war and to restore peace, friendship and good harmony between their powers on a solid and unshakable foundation, unanimously decided to entrust this saving work to the watch and leadership of the mutual representatives, namely: All-Russian Emperor – the most brilliant and highly superior Count Ivan IvanovichDibich-ZabalkanskyHis Majesty Adjutant General, Infantry General, Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Army, Chief of the Infantry on behalf of his regiment and Member of the State Council, Knight of Orders of All Russian, Imperial-Austrian: Maria Theresa of the Lesser Cross, Leopold the Great Cross, and Royal Prussian: Black Eagle , Red Eagle 1st class and military Dignity; having a golden sword with the inscription “For courage”, decorated with diamonds, medals: for the campaign of 1812, for the capture of Paris in 1814 and for the Persian War of 1826, 1827 and 1828, which, by the power of the highest authority granted to him, appointed and named plenipotentiaries of the imperial Russian court of the shining and dignified gentlemen: Count Alexei Orlov, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General, Commander of the 1st Cuirassier Division, Knight of Russian Orders: St. Anna of the 1st degree, decorated with diamonds, St. Equal-to-the-Apostles Prince Vladimir of the 2nd degree, St. Great Martyr and Victorious George the 4th degree and the golden sword “For courage”, decorated with diamonds; Imperial-Austrian Leopold 3rd class; Royal Prussian: Red Eagle 1st class, “For Dignity” and the Iron Cross; Royal Bavarian Maximilian of the 3rd class, and having silver and bronze medals for the campaign of 1812 and another silver for the capture of Paris in 1814; and Count Theodore Palen, Privy Counselor and Knight of Russian Orders: St. Blessed Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky, St. Anna of the 1st degree and St. John of Jerusalem; His Majesty Emperor of Ottoman – of the superior and highly respectable gentlemen: Mehmed-Sadik-Efendi, the real great defector of the Sublime Porte of Ottoman, and Abdul-Kadir-Bey, the Kazi-Asker of Anatolia.

These plenipotentiaries, having gathered in the city of Adrianople, decided the following articles to change their powers.

Article I

Any hostility and disagreement that had existed between the two empires hitherto ceased on land and on the seas; and may peace, friendship, and good agreement between His Majesty emperor and Padishah all-Russian and by His Majesty the Ottoman emperor and Padishah, their heirs and successors, and also between their empires. Both high contracting parties will be especially cautious about warning everything that could revive hostility between the two subjects. They will fulfill exactly all the conditions of this peace treaty and will evenly observe that it is by no means violated either directly or indirectly.

Article II

His Majesty Emperor and All-Russian Padishah, wanting to certify His Majesty the Ottoman Emperor and the Padishah, in the sincerity of his friendly disposition, returns the Principality of Moldova to the Sublime Porte, within the borders that it had before the war, with this peace treaty terminated. His Imperial Majesty the Principality of Wallachia and the Krapovsky Banat returns without any exemption, Bulgaria and the land of Dobrudja from the Danube to the sea and are bought with Silistra, Girsovo, Machin, Isakchu, Tulchu, Babadag, Bazardzhik, Varna, Pravy and other cities, towns and villages, in that land consisting of the entire space of the Balkan Range from Emine-Burnu to Kazan, and all the lands from the Balkan to the sea, as well as Selimno, Yamboli, Aydos, Karnabat, Misimvriya, Ankhiali, Burgas, Sisopol, Kirklissi, the city of Adrianopol, Lule-Burgas, finally, all cities, towns and villages, and in general all the places occupied in Rumelia by Russian troops.

Article III

The border between the two empires will continue to be the Prut River from its very confluence with Moldova to the union with the Danube. From this point, the boundary line must follow the Danube until the confluence of the St George’s Bay into the sea, so that all the islands formed by the various branches of this river will belong to Russia; its right bank, as before, will remain in the possession of the Ottoman Ports. Meanwhile, it is decided that the right bank of the river, starting from the point where the Georgievsky branch separates from Sulinsky, will remain uninhabited two hours from the river and that there will be no establishments on it; as well as on the islands that pass into the possession of the Russian court, it will not be allowed to arrange any establishments or fortifications, except quarantine ones. Merchant ships of both powers are given free navigation throughout the Danube, knowing that those flying the Ottoman flag cannot enter the Kiliya and Sulinsky lights and that the St. George’s girder remains common to the military and merchant flags of both empires. However, Russian warships should not go up the Danube beyond the place of its connection with the Prut.

Article IV

Georgia, Imereti, Mingrelia, Guria and many Transcaucasian regions have long been attached to the Russian Empire for eternal times; to this power were also ceded to the treaty concluded with Persia in Turkmenchay on February 10, 1828, of the Khanates of Erevan and Nakhichevan. Therefore, both high contracting parties recognized the need to establish a definitive border between the mutual possessions along the entire mentioned border that would be able to avert any misunderstanding for the future. Likewise, they took into consideration the means that could put an insurmountable barrier to the raids and robberies of adjacent tribes, hitherto so often breaking the ties of friendship and good neighborliness between the two empires. As a result of this, it is now supposed to recognize the border between the possessions in Asia of the imperial Russian court and the Sublime Porteof the Ottoman line, which, following the current border of Guria from the Black Sea, rises to the border of Imereti and from there in the most direct direction to the point where the border of the Akhaltsykh and Kars pashalyks connects with Georgian, so that the cities of Akhaltsykh and the fortress of Akhalkalaki remain north of the marked line and at a distance of no closer than two hours from it.

All lands lying south and west from the above boundary line to the side of Kars and Trebizond pashalyks with a large part of the Akhaltsykh pashalyk will remain in the eternal possession of the Sublime Porte; the lands lying to the north and east from this line to the side of Georgia, Imereti and Guria, as well as the entire coast of the Black Sea from the mouth of the Kuban to the pier of St. Nicholas inclusive, will remain in the eternal possession of the Russian Empire. As a result, the imperial Russian court gives and returns to the Sublime Porte the rest of the Akhaltsykh’s pashalyk, the city of Kars with its pashalyk, the city of Bayazid with its pashalyk, the city of Erzurum with its pashalyk, as well as all the places occupied by Russian troops and located outside the above line.

Article V

Because of the Principality, the Moldavian and Wallachian subjugated themselves to special capitulations of the supreme authority of the Sublime Porte, and since Russia took upon itself the guarantee of their prosperity, they now retain all the rights, advantages and benefits granted in those surrenders or in agreements between the two imperial courts of prisoners, or finally in the Hatti-sheriffs, published at different times. Therefore, these principalities are given freedom of worship, perfect security, independent national governance and the right to free trade. The articles additional to the previous treaties, which were deemed necessary so that these regions would certainly enjoy their rights, are set forth in a separate act, which is and will be considered equivalent to the other parts of this contract.

Article VI

The circumstances following the Akkerman Convention did not allow the Sublime Porte to take up immediately the provisions of the Separate Act on Serbia, annexed to Article V of that Convention; therefore, the Port solemnly undertakes to fulfill these without any delay and with all possible accuracy, namely: immediately returns to Serbia six districts, torn away from this area, and thus forever ensures the peace and well-being of the faithful and humble Serbian people. The firman, approved by the Hatti-Sheriff on the enforcement of the aforementioned resolutions, will be issued and officially notified to the imperial Russian court within one month from the date of signing of this peace treaty.

Article VII

Russian citizens will enjoy throughout the Ottoman Empire, on land and at sea, the complete and perfect freedom of trade granted to them in treatises, hitherto between the two high contracting powers. This freedom of trade will by no means be violated or constrained in any way and under no pretext, nor through any prohibitions or restrictions, below with respect to any institutions and measures imposed in terms of internal governance or legislation. Russian citizens, their vessels and goods will be protected from all violence and claims; the former will exclusively be under the judicial and police authority of the Russian minister and consuls, and the Russian courts will not be subject to any internal search by the Ottoman authorities, either on the high seas or in harbors, marinas or on the raids of the Turkish Empire; all kinds of goods, or supplies belonging to Russian nationals, upon clearing of the customs duty established by the tariffs, can be freely sold, stored ashore in the stores of the owners or their attorneys, or loaded onto another vessel, of any power, so what about Russian citizens are not required to notify local authorities, and even less to ask for their permission. Moreover, it is decided that these advantages extend both to the trade in bread exported from Russia, and to the free transport of it, no difficulties or obstructions will ever be made under any pretext.

Moreover, the Sublime Porte undertakes to observe carefully so that trade, and especially navigation along the Black Sea, is not exposed to any obstacles; to this end, it acknowledges and announces that the passage through the Canal of Constantinople and the Dardanelles Strait is completely free and open to Russian vessels under a merchant’s flag, with cargo or ballast, coming from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean or from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. These ships, if they are merchants, regardless of their size or the amount of their cargo, will be subjected to neither halt nor harassment, according to the order above. Both imperial courts will enter into an agreement on the most convenient means to avert all sluggishness in supplying ships with the proper types when they are sent.

On this basis and subject to the same conditions as those established for ships under Russian flag, the passage through the Canal of Constantinople and the Dardanelles Strait is declared free and open to merchant ships and all powers that are friends of the High Port, whether these ships will sail to Russian harbors on the Black Sea, or return from there with cargo or ballast.

Finally, the Sublime Porte, presenting the imperial Russian court the right to enjoy such perfect freedom of trade and navigation on the Black Sea, solemnly announces that for its part, it will never oppose the slightest obstacle. Port especially promises to never stop or prohibit the vessels with cargo or ballast belonging both to Russia and to other powers with which the Ottoman Empire is not in a declared war, when they will pass through the Canal of Constantinople or the Dardanelles Strait, from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean or from the Mediterranean to the Russian Black Sea harbors. And if (from what, God forbid) any of the decisions contained in this article are violated and perfect and speedy satisfaction does not follow the ideas of this Russian Minister, then the Sublime Porte preliminary admits that the imperial Russian court has the right to accept such a violation for hostility action and immediately act in relation to the Ottoman Empire by right of retaliation.

Article VIII

The provisions established in Article VI of the Akkerman Convention regarding the determination and satisfaction of claims of mutual subjects for compensation for losses, in different times incurred since the war of 1806, hitherto had not been carried out, and the Russian merchants, upon conclusion of the above-described convention, suffered still significant new losses as a result of measures taken regarding navigation along the Bosporus. Why is it now recognized and accepted that the Ottoman Port will pay the imperial Russian court within 18 months and, within the time frame determined by this, one million five hundred thousand Dutch chervonets to pay this amount an end to all mutual claims of both contracting parties and harassment regarding the circumstances mentioned above.

Article IX

Because the continuation of the war, which is supposed to end well with a real peace treaty, caused significant costs to the imperial Russian court, the Sublime Porte recognizes the need to deliver a decent reward for this court. And therefore, in addition to the concession to a small piece of land in Asia, which the Russian court agrees to accept on account of the aforementioned remuneration, stated in Article IV, the Sublime Porte also undertakes to pay that amount of money, which will be determined by mutual consent.

Article X

The Sublime Porte, announcing that it completely agrees to the resolution of the treaty concluded in London on June 24 / July 6, 1827 between Russia, Great Britain and France, proceeds evenly to the act which, by mutual agreement of these powers, took place on March 10/22, 1829 on the basis of the mentioned contract and contains a detailed statement of measures relating to the final bringing it into effect. Immediately upon exchanging the ratifications of this peace treaty, the Sublime Porte will appoint commissioners for an agreement with the plenipotentiaries of the imperial Russian, as well as English and French, on the enforcement of the mentioned measures and decrees.

Article XI

Following the signing of this peace treaty between the two empires and the exchange of ratifications of both sovereigns, the Sublime Porte will immediately begin the speedy and accurate execution of the decisions contained in it, namely: Articles III and IV regarding the borders that should divide both empires in Europe and Asia, and Articles V and VI regarding the principalities of Moldova and Wallachia, as well as Serbia, and as soon as these various articles are recognized as fulfilled, the imperial Russian court will begin to withdraw its troops from the possessions of the Ottoman Empire in accordance with the grounds drawn up in a separate act, which constitute an equivalent part of this peace treaty. To perfect; while the cleansing of occupied lands, control and order, which are now introduced there under the possession of the imperial Russian court, will remain in force, and the Sublime Porte of Ottoman will not intervene at all.

Article XII

Immediately after the signing of this peace treaty, the commanders of the mutual troops will be ordered to cease hostilities on land and at sea. Their same actions, which will follow upon the signing of this treaty, will be honored as if not happened and will not cause any change in the decisions contained in it. Likewise, everything that in this period of time will be conquered by the troops of one of the other high contracting powers will be returned without any delay.

Article XIII

The high contracting powers, renewing an alliance of sincere friendship among them, grant general pardon and perfect amnesty to all their subjects, whatever their titles, who, during the war, which was successfully terminated, took part in actions or showed their commitment to their behavior or opinions – either of the two contracting powers. And therefore, none of such persons for their actions will not be disturbed or harassed in relation to either the person or property, but each of them is given the right to again take possession of his former property, calmly, under the protection of laws, to use it or, without fear no claims or harassment, sell it within eighteen months if they wish to relocate with their family and movable property to another country at their election. Moreover, reciprocal subjects residing in areas returned to the High Port or assigned to the imperial Russian court are also given an eighteen-month period, counting from the exchange of ratifications of this peace treaty, so that, if they deem it necessary, they can make orders regarding property they acquired before the war or after this, and go with their capitals and movable property into the possession of one or another of the contracting powers.

Article XIV

All prisoners of war in both empires, regardless of their nation, rank or gender, must immediately be extradited and returned without any ransom or payment upon exchange of ratifications of this peace treaty. This excludes Christians who voluntarily accepted Mohammed confession in the areas of the Sublime Porte, and Muslims who also voluntarily accepted the Christian faith within the Russian Empire. In the same way it will be done with those Russian subjects, who, upon signing this peace treaty, were captured for some reason and are in the areas of the Sublime Porte. The imperial Russian court promises to fulfill the same thing in relation to the subjects of the Sublime Porte.

For the amounts used for the maintenance of prisoners by both contracting parties, no payment will be required. From each state they will be equipped with everything necessary for travel expenses to the border, where they will be exchanged by mutual commissioners.

Article XV

All treaties, conventions and decrees that have been concluded at different times between the imperial Russian court and the Ottoman Sublime Porte, with the exception of articles canceled by this peace treaty, are confirmed in all their strength and space, and both high contracting parties undertake to keep them holy and inviolable.

Article XVI

The present peace treaty will be ratified by both high contracting courts, and the exchange of ratifications between their plenipotentiaries will follow in six weeks or, if possible, before.

This peace act, which contains sixteen articles and which will be finally approved by the exchange of mutual ratifications within the stipulated time period, we signed by the power of our authorities, our seal affixed and exchanged it for another similar one, which was signed by the above-mentioned Plenipotentiary of the Ottoman Sublime Porte and attached to it their seals.

Signed:

Count Alexey Orlov

Count F. Palen.